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The Economics of Aneutronic Fusion: Making a Case with Kronos SMART

The Economics of Aneutronic Fusion: Making a Case with Kronos SMART

The pursuit of nuclear fusion as a clean and nearly limitless energy source has long been tempered by its associated economic challenges. Aneutronic fusion, which promises reduced radiation hazards, has revived hope in the financial feasibility of fusion energy. Kronos SMART's pioneering work in this arena offers valuable insights into the economic implications of aneutronic fusion.

1. Cost-Efficiency in Fueling:

Fuel Abundance: Deuterium, a primary fuel in the aneutronic reaction with 3He, can be extracted from seawater, making it abundant and relatively affordable[15].

Fuel Consumption: Aneutronic fusion reactions, particularly the Deuterium-3He reaction, have high energy yields, meaning less fuel is required for considerable energy output[2].

2. Reduced Radiation Mitigation Costs:

Traditional fusion reactions produce high-energy neutrons that necessitate expensive radiation shielding and could lead to activation of reactor materials, increasing maintenance and decommissioning costs.

Aneutronic fusion substantially reduces or eliminates these neutron-related costs, contributing to more favorable reactor economics[2].

3. Infrastructure & Modularity:

Scalability: Kronos SMART's emphasis on modular designs means reactors can be scaled to demand. Smaller, modular reactors can be more cost-effective to build and deploy, reducing initial capital expenditures[8].

Maintenance: Modular designs can also allow for easier maintenance, as individual modules can be serviced or replaced without shutting down the entire reactor system.

4. Direct Energy Conversion:

The ability to convert fusion energy directly to electricity reduces the need for complex and costly heat conversion systems, improving overall efficiency and lowering costs[15].

5. Long-Term Profitability:

Reduced Operating Costs: Lower fuel costs, reduced maintenance needs due to less radiation damage, and the efficiencies of direct energy conversion can all contribute to decreased operating costs.

Stable Energy Prices: Given the abundance of deuterium and the potential for sourcing 3He from extraterrestrial bodies, aneutronic fusion could lead to stable, predictable energy prices, insulating economies from volatile fossil fuel markets[15].

6. Investment & R&D:

While significant investments are required in research and development, the potential returns from aneutronic fusion, given its myriad benefits, are substantial.

Kronos SMART, being at the forefront, can capitalize on its innovations, creating a model for others to follow and invest in.


The economic promise of aneutronic fusion is substantial. When juxtaposed against traditional energy sources or even conventional fusion, aneutronic fusion, as championed by Kronos SMART, offers a blend of long-term profitability, reduced costs, and scalable infrastructure. While challenges remain, the financial implications of widespread aneutronic fusion adoption could reshape the global energy landscape.


[2] S. M. Motevalli and R. Fadaei, "A Comparison Between the Burn Condition of Deuterium-Tritium and Deuterium-Helium-3 Reaction and Stability Limits," Z. Naturforsch. A, 70, 79 (2015).

[8] G. Pajer et al., "Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PPPL-4761, May 2012.

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