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Introduction to Aneutronic Fusion: The SMART Way Forward

Introduction to Aneutronic Fusion: The SMART Way Forward

Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long tantalized scientists and engineers with the promise of virtually limitless energy. Traditional fusion reactions, however, are not without their complications—producing high-energy neutrons that can irradiate surrounding materials, posing significant engineering and safety challenges. Enter aneutronic fusion—a form of fusion that produces little to no neutrons, making it an attractive alternative for power production. Central to this discourse is the Deuterium and Helium-3 reaction, a promising pathway to aneutronic fusion. In this milieu, Kronos SMART emerges as a pioneering force, aiming to bring this potent form of energy from the realm of theory to practical application.

1. Aneutronic Fusion: The Basics:

Aneutronic fusion, as the name suggests, is fusion without neutrons. Fusion reactions usually involve the fusion of light atomic nuclei, releasing energy in the process. In conventional fusion reactions, neutrons are emitted, but in aneutronic fusion, the primary products are charged particles. These reactions are particularly compelling because they reduce the radiation and materials challenges associated with neutronic reactions[1].

2. The Promise of Deuterium and Helium-3:

Among several aneutronic reactions, the fusion of Deuterium (2D) and Helium-3 (3He) stands out. This reaction is represented as:


The energy released in this reaction, 18.3 MeV, is notably high. Moreover, the primary byproducts are Helium (4He) and a proton (1p), both of which are charged and result in minimal neutron production[2].

3. Kronos SMART: A Groundbreaking Approach:

Kronos SMART (Sustainable Modular Aneutronic Reaction Technology) harnesses the potential of the 2D and 3He reaction, emphasizing modularity and direct energy conversion.

Modularity: Kronos's design enables the easy scaling of reactors, making it feasible for both large power plants and smaller, decentralized power solutions. This flexibility could revolutionize how fusion energy is deployed and consumed[8].

Direct Energy Conversion: A salient feature of aneutronic fusion is the production of charged particles, which can be directly converted into electricity. This bypasses the traditional steam turbine cycle, resulting in higher efficiencies and reduced infrastructure costs[4].


Aneutronic fusion, epitomized by the Deuterium and Helium-3 reaction, is setting the stage for a safer, more efficient future in fusion energy. With its focus on modularity and direct energy conversion, Kronos SMART is at the forefront of these efforts, pushing the boundaries of what's possible and paving the way for a brighter, more sustainable energy future.


[1] C. Baccou et al., "New Scheme to Produce Aneutronic Fusion Reactions by Laser-Accelerated Ions," Laser Part. Beams 33, 117 (2015).

[2] S. M. Motevalli and R. Fadaei, "A Comparison Between the Burn Condition of Deuterium-Tritium and Deuterium-Helium-3 Reaction and Stability Limits," Z. Naturforsch. A, 70, 79 (2015).

[4] N. Lior, "Advanced Energy Conversion to Power," Energy Convers. Manage. 38, 941 (1997).

[8] G. Pajer et al., "Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine," Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PPPL-4761, May 2012.

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